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MetaOx™ detects cerebral oxygen metabolism.

A unique oxygen consumption monitoring technology instrument, it is capable of acquiring quantitative measurements of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation using FDNIRS (Frequency-Domain Near Infrared Spectroscopy) and an index of blood flow using DCS ("Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy). With these parameters and the knowledge of arterial oxygen saturation (from a pulse oximeter), the instrument determines the cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) index.

Development of the MetaOx™ technology was funded by an SBIR grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at NIH and the instrument was developed in collaboration with Prof. Maria Angela Franceschini of the Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Prof. Arjun Yodh of the University of Pennsylvania.

Notice: Investigational device. Limited by Federal (or United States) law to investigational use. The ISS MetaOx™ is presently used for research only.

How MetaOx™ Works

MetaOx™ combines three technologies respectively

  • FD-NIRS, the quantitative frequency-domain near-infrared, capable of providing absolute values of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration in tissues
  • Pulse oximetry for the measurement of arterial oxygen saturation
  • DCS, "Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy, for the measurement of blood flow

From these measurements the MetaOx™ determines the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen extraction, CMRO2.

Applications of MetaOx™

In infants:

  • Assess microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF)
  • Development of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen extraction (CMRO2)
  • Blood flow and CMRO2 functional changes

In infants and children after cardiac surgery (when born with heart defects):

  • Assess pre-operative hemodynamics
  • Monitoring early postoperative changes
  • Monitoring the cerebral oxygen metabolism
  • Assess cerebrovascular reactivity
  • Response to sodium bicarbonate treatment

In adults:

  • Measure the impairment of cerebrovascular reactivity in ischemic stroke patients
  • Estimate autoregulation and CBF responses in patients with traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Assess cerebrovascular reactivity in response to pharmacologically induced vasodilation in healthy adults and in patients suffering from carotid artery stenosis and/or occlusion
  • Risk assessment in patients with steno-occlusive lesions of the internal carotid artery
  • Monitor adult patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy
  • Assess hemodynamic responses of adults to low-frequency repetitive TMS applications
  • Study CBF response variations with age

Sensors

Assymetric Sensor

Schematic of asymmetric sensor. The FDNIRS fibers, marked in blue color, are arranged in a classic multi-distance pattern; the DCS fibers, in red color. Distances for the FDNIRS fibers [a = 25 mm; b = 30 mm; c = 35 mm; d = 40 mm]; distances for the DCS fibers [r: 8 mm; s = 39 mm]. Measurements are in millimeters.

Sensor with Colocalized Fibers

Schematic of the sensor featuring colocalized fibers. The sources for the FDNIRS and DCS share the same location; the collectors for the DCS are located at the NIRS fiber with the furthest distance from the source. The FDNIRS fibers are marked in blue color; the DCS fibers in red. Distances for the fibers [a = 25 mm; b = 30 mm; c = 35 mm; d = 40 mm]. Measurements are in millimeters.

MetaOx™ Specifications

Lasers NIRS: 660, 690, 705, 730, 760, 785, 810, 830 nm; 5-9 mW
DCS: 850 nm, long coherence length; 50mW
Detectors NIRS: Qty. 4 PMTs, GaAs; computer-controlled gain
DCS: Qty. 8 APDs; photon counting mode
Acquisition electronics NIRS: 4-channel A/D converter
DCS: 4-channel, 8-channel digital correlator
Sensors All Fiber Optic
Computer and Operating System: Touch-screen monitor, Windows 8, 64-bit
Power Requirements: Universal power input: 110-240 V, 250 W
Dimensions 45 cm x 24 cm x 44 cm
Weight 19 kg

Click on a heading below to expand its contents.

Combined NIRS-DCS

Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Neonates With Congenital Heart Disease Quantified by MRI and Optics.
Jain, V., Buckley, E.M., Licht, D.J., Lynch, J.M., Schwab, P.J., Naim, M.Y., Lavin, N.A., Nicolson, S.C., Montenegro, L.M., Yodh, A.G., Wehrli, F.W.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab., 2014, 34(3), 380-8.
Non-invasive Optical Measurement of Cerebral Metabolism and Hemodynamics in Infants.
Lin, P.Y., Roche-Labarbe, N., Dehaes, M., Carp, S., Fenoglio, A., Barbieri, B., Hagan, K., Grant, P.E., Franceschini, M.A.
J Vis Exp., 2013, (73), e4379.
Regional and Hemispheric Asymmetries of Cerebral Hemodynamic and Oxygen Metabolism in Newborns.
Lin, P.Y., Roche-Labarbe, N., Dehaes, M., Fenoglio, A., Grant, P.E., Franceschini, M.A.
Cereb Cortex., 2013, 23(2), 339-48.
Near-infrared Spectroscopy Assessment of Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in the Developing Premature Brain.
Roche-Labarbe, N., Fenoglio, A., Aggarwal, A., Dehaes, M., Carp, S.A., Franceschini, M.A., Grant, P.E.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab., 2012, 32(3), 481-8.
Optical Measurement of Cerebral Hemodynamics and Oxygen Metabolism in Neonates With Congenital Heart Defects.
Durduran, T., Zhou, C., Buckley, E.M., Kim, M.N., Yu, G., Choe, R., Gaynor, J.W., Spray, T.L., Durning, S.M., Mason, S.E., Montenegro, L.M., Nicolson, S.C., Zimmerman, R.A., Putt, M.E., Wang, J., Greenberg, J.H., Detre, J.A., Yodh, A.G., Licht, D.J.
J Biomed Opt., 2010, 15(3), 037004.
Noninvasive Optical Measures of CBV, StO(2), CBF Index, and rCMRO(2) in Human Premature Neonates' Brains in the First Six Weeks of Life.
Roche-Labarbe, N., Carp, S.A., Surova, A., Patel, M., Boas, D.A., Grant, P.E., Franceschini, M.A.
Hum Brain Mapp., 2010, 31(3), 341-52.
Increased Cerebral Blood Volume and Oxygen Consumption in Neonatal Brain Injury.
Grant, P.E., Roche-Labarbe, N., Surova, A., Themelis, G., Selb, J., Warren, E.K., Krishnamoorthy, K.S., Boas, D.A., Franceschini, M.A.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab., 2009, 29(10), 1704-13.
Assessment of Infant Brain Development With Frequency-domain Near-infrared Spectroscopy.
Franceschini, M.A., Thaker, S., Themelis, G., Krishnamoorthy, K.K., Bortfeld, H., Diamond, S.G., Boas, D.A., Arvin, K., Grant, P.E.
Pediatr Res., 2007, 61(5 Pt 1), 546-51.
Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-infrared Time-resolved Spectroscopy.
Ijichi, S., Kusaka, T., Isobe, K., Okubo, K., Kawada, K., Namba, M., Okada, H., Nishida, T., Imai, T., Itoh, S.
Pediatr Res., 2005, 58(3), 568-73.
In Vivo Cerebrovascular Measurement Combining Diffuse Near-infrared Absorption and Correlation Spectroscopies.
Cheung, C., Culver, J.P., Takahashi, K., Greenberg, J.H., Yodh, A.G.
Phys Med Biol., 2001, 46(8), 2053-65.

Validation of NIRS-DCS

Validation of Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopic Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow Using Phase-encoded Velocity Mapping Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Buckley, E.M., Hance, D., Pawlowski, T., Lynch, J., Wilson, F.B., Mesquita, R.C., Durduran, T., Diaz, L.K., Putt, M.E., Licht, D.J., Fogel, M.A., Yodh, A.G.
J Biomed Opt., 2012, 17(3), 037007.
Validation of Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Measurements of Rodent Cerebral Blood Flow With Simultaneous Arterial Spin Labeling MRI; Towards MRI-optical Continuous Cerebral Metabolic Monitoring.
Carp, S.A., Dai, G.P., Boas, D.A., Franceschini, M.A., Kim, Y.R.
Biomed Opt Express., 2010, 1(2), 553-565.

DCS

Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy for Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow: Future Prospects.
Buckley, E.M., Parthasarathy, A.B., Grant, P.E., Yodh, A.G., Franceschini, M.A.
Neurophotonics., 2014, 1(1), pii 011009.
Direct Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow and Metabolism With Diffuse Optics.
Mesquita, R.C., Durduran, T., Yu, G., Buckley, E.M., Kim, M.N., Zhou, C., Choe, R., Sunar, U., Yodh, A.G.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci., 2011, 369(1955), 4390-406.
Influences of Tissue Absorption and Scattering on Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Blood Flow Measurements
Irwin, D., Dong, L., Shang, Y., Cheng, R., Kudrimoti, M., Stevens, S.D., Yu, G.
Biomed Opt Express., 2011, 2(7).
Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation
Boas, D.A., Yodh, A.G.
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 1997, 14(1), 192-215.
Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations
Boas, D.A., Yodh, A.G.
Physical Review Letters, 1995, 75(9), 1855-1859.

MetaOx™ for Neonatal Research: Assess microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF) and development of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen extraction (CMRO2)

Due to its ergonomic design that includes a portable touch screen monitor, MetaOx™ easily adapts into any hospital setting.

MetaOx™ in Sports Medicine